Passive Voice Participial Phrases: Bare
When verbs are in passive voice, transform the clause into a passive participial phrase. It doesn't matter whether the verb is past simple passive voice or past perfect passive voice - the passive participial phrase looks exactly the same. Let's transform these three simple sentences into one complex sentence with two participial phrases.
- She spotted her bike.
- It had been stolen two months ago.
- It had been taken when she ran into the store to buy milk.
To form the passive participial phrase, get rid of the subject and the auxiliaries in the clause. That's why it's called a participial phrase and not a participial clause: clauses have subjects and verbs while participial phrases begin with neither.
- She spotted her bike, stolen two months ago, taken when she ran into the store to buy milk.
During the transformation, regardless of the tense of the original verb, the participle is simply the base third form of the verb with no auxiliary and no subject.
Independent clause (present tense for future, passive) + Independent clause (future tense)
- If he is given a 2nd chance to write the test, he’ll do better.
Participial phrase (no time information) + Independent clause (future tense)
- Given a 2nd chance to write the test, he’ll do better.
Independent clause (past tense, passive) + Independent clause (past tense)
- He was attacked by a gang. He fought bravely but lost.
Participial phrase (no time information) + Independent clause (past tense)
- Attacked by a gang, he fought bravely but lost.
Given and considering
"Considering the circumstances" is an active voice participial phrase. It means exactly the same as "given the circumstances," which is a passive voice participial phrase.
- Considering the circumstances, I think this is the best choice for my needs.
- Given the circumstances, I think this is the best choice for my needs.
This participial version (Considering…) is much more common than the full version (If you consider…):
- Considering how high their prices are, you'd think their quality would be the best, but it's not.
- Given how high their prices are, you'd think their quality would be the best, but it's not.
The meaning of these sentences is exactly the same.